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- We Are Iraqis : Aesthetics and Politics in a Time of War
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A choreographic exchange of fire seems inevitable. Deafening beatbox explosions rip through the auditorium, rockets screech, missiles roar. As the metaphorical shells fly in, imagined shrapnel tears the dancers into shreds of movement. In dance, you have those bodies in front of you, engaged in acts of acute attention, utterly focused on the present. Never one for modesty, Forsythe's claims for Three Atmospheric Studies, which premieres next month at London's Sadler's Wells, verge on the titanic. The accompanying press blurb goes further. Forsythe is not the first to attempt to employ dance in the service of political imperatives.
This accolade goes to pioneers such as Kurt Jooss, whose Green Table set the anti-war standard back in , and groups such as the Workers' Dance League in the s, whose slogan blared: "Dance is a weapon in the revolutionary class struggle.
These works inevitably pose questions about dance's relationship with political content. Can a non-verbal artform that has been obsessed for centuries with notions of rarified beauty have anything profound to say about social and political problems? What makes choreographers believe they can flounce around the biggest issues of our time?
For dance purists, brought up on the abstract traditions of Balanchine and Merce Cunningham, the answer is simple: dance should remain unpolluted by politics. Croce rarely speaks publicly these days, but did break her silence in a faxed statement to me: "Choreographers mix dance with politics because it is the only way to get attention. And get grants too, probably.
We are Iraqis : aesthetics and politics in a time of war / | University of Toronto Libraries
The importance of a work is equated with the nobility of the sentiment it expresses. I've stopped attending dance attractions because the last thing I want to see is dancers wasting their time on some high-minded godawful piece of choreography. I don't want to be told about Iraq or Bush or Katrina by someone younger and dumber than I am. Reading excerpts from the fax to Jones threatened to rekindle the feud.
General Motors began suffering significant losses in the late s, partially the result of chairman Roger Smith's restructuring attempts, and partially because of increasingly dated cars. An example were customers who increasingly purchased European luxury cars rather than Cadillacs.
In , GM started Saturn the first new American make since the Edsel , with the goal of producing high-quality import fighters. Production would not begin until Chrysler introduced its new compact, front-wheel drive K-cars in Under the leadership of Lee Iacocca, the company turned a profit again the following year, and by paid off its government loans. A succession of models using this automobile platform followed. The most significant were the minivans in These proved a to be popular and they would dominate the van market for more than a decade. In , Chrysler purchased the Italian makes of Lamborghini and Maserati.
Production of the gull-winged sports car began in Northern Ireland in John DeLorean was arrested in October in a sting operation where he was attempting to sell cocaine to save his struggling company.
He was acquitted of all charges in , but too late for the DeLorean Motor Company, which closed down in The DeLorean gained renewed fame afterward as the time machine in the Back to the Future film trilogy. The imposition of CAFE fuel-mileage standards in spelled the end of big-block engines, but performance cars and convertibles reemerged in the s. Turbochargers were widely used to boost the performance of small cars, and technology from fuel injection began to take over from the widely used application of carburetors by the late s. Front-wheel drive also became dominant. The Eighties marked the decline of European brands in North America by the end of the decade.
Renault , Citroen , and Peugeot ceased importation by the end of the decade.
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Alfa Romeo would continue until Fiat also ceased imports to North America in the Eighties. The most prominent events and trends in popular culture of the decade particularly in the Anglosphere include:. In the United States, MTV was launched and music videos began to have a larger effect on the record industry. New wave and synthpop were developed by many British and American artists, and became popular phenomena throughout the decade, especially in the early and mid-Eighties.
Music grew fragmented and combined into subgenres such as house, goth, and rap metal. The event of numerous new technologies had a significant impact on s music, and led to a distinct production aesthetic that included synthesizer sounds and drum reverb. Duran Duran was the most successful pop band of the s, gaining a massive iconic fan following worldwide with their mega hit songs, eye-catching videos and attractive fashion style.
They fast became multi-platinum superstars. Mega hit songs like " Hungry Like the Wolf " and " The Reflex " became instant top 10 hits globally putting the band at the center of attention for many years to come, even today. Given their incredible success, Duran Duran has achieved selling over million records worldwide.
We Are Iraqis : Aesthetics and Politics in a Time of War
Michael Jackson was one of the definitive icons of the s and his leather jacket , glove , and Moonwalk dance were often imitated. Jackson's album Thriller became—and currently remains—the best-selling album of all time , with sales estimated by various sources as somewhere between 65 and million copies worldwide. His album Bad sold over 45 million copies and became the first album to have 5 number 1 singles chart on the Billboard Hot Jackson had the most number-one singles throughout the decade 9 , and spent the most weeks at 1 27 weeks. Jackson earned numerous awards and titles during the s, the most notable of which were a record 8 Grammy Awards and 8 American Music Awards in , and the honor of Artist of the Decade by U.
President George H.
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Jackson was arguably the biggest star during this time, and would eventually sell more than 1 billion records around the world. In the summer of , pop icon and Motown legend Diana Ross gave a benefit concert at New York Central Park to raise money to build a playground. Because the show was interrupted by a violent thunderstorm, Ross gave an impromptu make-up show the following day.
Prince was one of the most popular stars of the s and the most successful chart act of the decade. His breakthrough album , released in , produced three top-ten hits and the album itself charted at No 9. His sixth studio album Purple Rain was an international success, boosting Prince to superstardom and selling over 25 million copies worldwide.
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The album produced the US No 1. Prince released an album every year for the rest of the decade, all charting within the Top 10, with the exception of Lovesexy. In the s , he infamously changed his name to an unpronounceable symbol in response to a record dispute with Warner Brothers. He went on to sell over million records worldwide and win 7 Grammy Award s. Madonna and Whitney Houston are regarded by many as the most groundbreaking female artists of the decade.
The keyboard synthesizer and drum machine were among the most popular instruments in music during the s, especially in new wave music. After the s electronic instruments were no longer popular in rock but continued to be the main component of mainstream pop. By , the hip hop scene had evolved, gaining recognition and exhibiting a stronger influence on the music industry. This time period is also considered part of the golden age of hip hop.
Country music catapulted into a new realm of popularity with youth appeal and record-breaking marks. Groundbreaking artists such as Alabama , Hank Williams, Jr. The techno style of electronic dance music emerged in Detroit , Michigan , during the mid- to late s. The house music style, another form of electronic dance music, emerged in Chicago , Illinois , in the early s.
It eventually reached Europe before becoming infused in mainstream pop and dance music worldwide. Punk rock continued to make strides in the musical community.
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College rock caught on in the underground scene of the s in a nationwide movement with a distinct D. Y approach. Bands like the Pixies , R. Several notable music artists died of unnatural causes in the s.
English drummer John Bonham of the rock band Led Zeppelin also died that year in similar fashion. Tim Hardin died of a heroin overdose on December 29, Bob Marley died from a lentiginous skin melanoma on May 11, Harry Chapin died of a car accident on July 16, Marvin Gaye was shot dead by his father at his home in Los Angeles on April 1, , one day before what would have been his 45th birthday. Ozzy Osbourne's guitarist Randy Rhoads died in an airplane crash on March 19, Karen Carpenter died from heart failure caused by her anorexia condition on February 4, Metallica bassist Cliff Burton was killed in a bus accident in Sweden on September 27, Andy Gibb died in as a result of myocarditis.
In , the supergroup Band Aid was formed to raise aid and awareness of the economic plight of Ethiopia. In 's Live Aid concert, featuring many artists, promoted attention and action to send food aid to Ethiopia whose people were suffering from a major famine. The s saw the return of studio-driven films, coming from the filmmaker-driven New Hollywood era of the s.